This school developed during a major reform in penology when society began designing prisons for the sake of extreme punishment.This period also saw many legal reforms, the French Revolution, and the development of the legal system in the United States.
This approach, whose influence came via the theory of phrenology and by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, has been superseded.
They also argue that criminal behavior is innate and within a person.
Philosophers within this school applied the scientific method to study human behavior.
Although rare, some men are born with an extra X chromosome making their sex chromosomes XXY, this results in Klinefelter Syndrome.
As a result of this syndrome men may have enlarged breasts, less body hair, small reproductive organs, infertile, and even delayed puberty.
In the mid-18th century, criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law.