We also included the sample from a split-based bone point (Vi-3437) that had been analyzed in the laboratory previously, producing only a small collagen yield.
We decided to attempt to redate it, using a larger starting mass of bone powder.
Karavanić and Smith (19) have suggested that the mixture of elements may represent the interaction and possible acculturation between modern humans and late Neanderthals.
These alternatives are testable by selecting human and organic osseous points, as well as animal bones, for renewed AMS dating. A total of 10 samples from Vindija Cave were selected for AMS radiocarbon dating (Table 1).
This is an indicator of collagen preservation (20).
The results show that only one bone point sample (Vi-3446) had sufficient levels of nitrogen to warrant full sampling for collagen extraction and AMS dating; the remainder failed and therefore were not sampled further (, Table S1).
() High-resolution photographs of the Vi-*28 Neanderthal bone found using Zoo MS.
(Genomic analysis based on mitochondrial DNA revealed that all four human specimens fall into Neanderthal mitochondrial variation.
Full mitochondrial genomes of Vi-207 and Vi-*28 were reconstructed with an average coverage of 103-fold and 257-fold, respectively.
We applied zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) to find additional hominin remains.
We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G. in Europe witnessed the so-called biocultural transition from the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic, when incoming anatomically modern humans displaced Neanderthal groups across the continent (1, 2).
The data show that all the Neanderthal remains are from a much earlier period (Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000–29,000 B. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC).